Hate crime
        
Practices and initiatives undertaken to combat hate crimes - submitted for the ODIHR's annual Hate Crime Report
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Online advice against right-wing extremism

Country: Germany
Category: Addressing incitement of hatred on the internet ; Victim support

Initiator: Gegen Vergessen – Für Demokratie" e.V. (Association "Against Oblivion – For Democracy"), Federal Agency for Civic Education
Level of implementation: National

Summary: Advice is provided to individual, suitable groups and experts are brought together in a bid to find suitable solutions to problems. A pool of knowledge on right-wing extremism is created.

Impact: Individuals, groups and institutions can seek advice if they encounter problems with right-wing extremism or make contact with other persons and groups in the same predicament.

Website: http:/​/​www.online​-beratung​-gegen​-rechtsextremismus.de (English)

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Right-wing extremism on the Internet/Jugendschutznet (Youth-Protection on the Internet)

Country: Germany
Category: Addressing incitement of hatred on the internet

Initiator: Jugendschutznet, Federal Agency for Civic Education
Level of implementation: National

Summary: Persons who use the Internet are protected comprehensively against incitement to hatred and violence by having the Internet monitored by permanent, professional staff – not organised by the state – who seek to identify right-wing extremist websites, platforms and content and to initiate suitable measures against those responsible for or providing ..... any such content. Jugendschutznet also provides an advisory service and holds seminars for staff in education.

Impact: Having the Internet monitored by players in civil society, civilian measures vis-à-vis servers and providers.

More information: mailto:sgatjugendschutz.net

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

"Accepted to be heard and seen"

Country: Finland
Category: Combating racism in sports


Summary: Ministry of Education together with the Finnish Sports Federation has implemented antidiscrimination programmes targeted to sport clubs and their employees as well as visibility campaigns targeted to "common public". An example of such programmes is "Accepted to be heard and seen", a programme to raise awareness on LGBT-people in sports. The programme ..... consists of training sessions for professionals (coaches etc.) and sport club members, a guidebook and a training material for sports diversity trainers.

The programme is ongoing, further information: http://www.slu.fi/eng/finnish_sports_federation/



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

National Programme for Counteracting Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance

Country: Poland
Category: National action plan

Initiator: The Government (the Plenipotentiary of Equal Treatment coordinates its implementation).
Level of implementation: National ; Regional

Summary: The implementation of the Programme is planned for the years 2004-2009 and may be continued after the evaluation of its functioning and verification of its goals and tasks. The Programme has been prepared in cooperation with nongovernmental organizations. The objective of the National Programme is to perform tasks aimed at combating xenophobia, racism ..... and anti-Semitism, as well as developing a widelyunderstood culture of tolerance in the Polish society. The beneficiaries of the Programme include Polish citizens belonging to national and ethnic minorities, foreigners, including migrants and refugees as well as other persons who could be subject to discrimination on racial or ethnic grounds. Under the Programme the implementation of a wide range of tasks in the following fields has been planned: diagnosis of the situation and monitoring, activity of public administration, labour market and socio-economic situation, health, education and culture, public mass media and international cooperation. The Programme is implemented by competent ministers, public institutions, the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection and public broadcasters, in cooperation with local self-government units and non-governmental organizations.

Impact: At the moment an evaluation report is being worked out.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

National Action Plan to Fight Racism, Xenophobia, Anti-Semitism and Related Intolerance

Country: Germany
Category: National action plan

Initiator: Federal Government
Level of implementation: Local ; Regional ; National

Summary: The United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance in September 2001 in Durban urged countries to develop national action plans in order to combat racism. The action plan subsequently drawn up by the Federal Government in consultation with non-governmental organisations and completed at the ..... end of 2007 is considered to be documentation of the holistic approach aimed at effective prevention and protection against violence and discrimination. It provides information about the wide range of initiatives and measures that have been implemented and are ongoing in the fight against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and related intolerance in a wide range of areas. It also describes the efforts and measures being undertaken to nip racist, xenophobic and discriminating tendencies in the bud through the promotion and strengthening of social cohesion.

By drawing up this National Action Plan for the first time, a basis has been created for further activities. The National Action Plan is hence not a static process, it needs to be evaluated and updated at regular intervals.


Impact: Fighting racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and related intolerance in a wide range of areas


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Resolution on the Internal Security Programme

Country: Finland
Category: National action plan


Summary: The Government adopted the Resolution on the Internal Security Programme in 2008. The Internal Security Programme is a Government Resolution that specifies the priorities, objectives and measures for the intersectional development of internal security. Several measures to improve security of immigrants and ethnic minorities are included. For example, ..... it will be ensured that legislation and the judicial system can efficiently address racist crimes and racist messages on the Internet by means of criminal law. The need for enacting an obligation for website hosts to monitor and remove material that fulfils the criteria of racist crime will be evaluated. Processing cases of racist crime will be enhanced by improving cooperation between the police and prosecutors, so that the motives for crimes will be examined in sufficient detail. Consideration will be given to whether persons reporting an offence should be offered the opportunity to provide further information at the reporting stage or the pre-trial investigation stage for purposes of compiling statistics pertaining to suspicions of discrimination crimes, such as the grounds for discrimination or ethnic background. An agreement will be reached on the definition of racist crime used in the judicial system for the purpose of developing monitoring. The continuity of qualitative research on the progressing of cases of suspected racist crime in the judicial system will be safeguarded, and sufficient research resources guaranteed. This research will show how suspicions of racist crime reported to the police progress to the prosecutors and the courts, and will thereby increase the scope for monitoring the functioning of the system.

The Internal Security Programme is available in English on http://www.intermin.fi/intermin/hankkeet/turva/home.nsf/files/252008%20ENG/$file/252008%20ENG.pdf



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Project group against hate crime

Country: Sweden
Category: Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Training for criminal justice system

Initiator: Östergötland County Police
Level of implementation: Local

Period: Spring 2007 – February 2008

Summary: Development of a card of measures for handling and discovering hate crime. Every police officer is to be issued with one.

See: "Åtgärdskort – hatbrott" ("Card of Measures – Hate Crime")

Impact: This is probably a good ready-reckoner and alarm clock.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Afro-Swedes

Country: Sweden
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Equality Ombudsman (DO)
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Summary: Afro-Swedes experience racism and discrimination on a daily basis. There is still a notable lack of knowledge and insight in Sweden about the situation of the group. Afro-Swedes encounter discrimination and marginalization in Swedish society due to their skin colour and their African origin. The special circumstances of the group encompass then whole ..... scale, with everything from ethnic and religious discrimination to racist violence. They experience an unfair position in several areas of society. The collaboration over several years between DO and the group is based on the strategy of mutual knowledge development, where the basic idea is that the group itself is the key to positive change processes. The works aim to develop, in the longer term, own capacity within the group for giving advice and carrying out active anti-discrimination work. The goal is to contribute to increasing the preconditions for the group’s own power and influence over the own conditions of life.

Impact: During the year, the systematic work carried out by the authority together with the group has included the following activities, among others:
  • Regional training of advisers/activists, where the participants have developed their own action plans for local own work in different parts of the country.
  • A special collaborative project concerning ..... building up capacity within the group for legal advice, with the long-term aim of developing the opportunities for the group independently to pursue important discrimination cases in the courts.
  • Further knowledge about the group’s experience of racism and discrimination has been gathered by the authority through the completion of two externally produced studies; one about discrimination of Afro-Swedes on the labour market and one about discrimination of adult Afro-Swedes.
During the year, DO has investigated and brought to court several cases concerning discrimination of Afro-Swedes. These cases show clearly the special discrimination and everyday racism experienced by the group.

The work surrounding discrimination with groups specially exposed to discrimination (hate crime) is based on the authority strategy of mutual knowledge development. This collaboration in turn will contribute to a change dynamic, both in relation to own power among those exposed and the deepened knowledge within the authority about the situation of the target group. This has led, among other things, to greater trust in the authority, increased reporting propensity and more cases, leading to a strengthened legal practice


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Muslim group and ethnic groups from the Middle East

Country: Sweden
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Equality Ombudsman (DO)
Level of implementation: National

Period: 2008

Summary: During 2008, DO has continued the work of strengthening Muslim groups and ethnic groups from the Middle East. From a discrimination perspective, a number of issues that are the same for both groups have been specially discussed during the year:

- Education. Discrimination in schools is a constantly present issue. This relates to harassment ..... and infringements, issues of school reports and the right to learn mother tongues.

- The issue of discrimination on the labour market and the housing market.


Impact: During 2008, three meetings were held with the Muslim group. Dialogue meetings were used to illuminate issues of principle character. During the year, the following special activities have been carried out together with the Muslim group. Pupils, staff and heads of Islamic schools in the country have been trained by DO as a result of the problems pupils ..... in these schools experience in terms of getting practical placements.

During the year, the authority has carried out special training courses together with Sweden’s Young Muslims (SUM), in order to increase the organization’s capacity for own work against discrimination. Do has also contributed to the formation of a trainer group within SUM, which is to work independently against discrimination. DO has contributed to the formation of a women’s group within the Muslim group. The group, Muslim Women Against Discrimination, is to counteract religious discrimination and work for integration and equality.

DO has also had dialogue meetings with the association Victims of Discrimination and the Islamic family Association concerning problems of structural character, among them the issue of school lunches for Muslim children and discrimination within the judicial system.

DO has had a reconciliation meeting with the Muslim group regarding the group’s collaboration with DO and the future work against discrimination.

During 2008, DO carried out two themed meetings with the ethnic Middle East group. The themes discussed were discrimination during the exercise of authority work: Labour exchange, social services, social insurance offices and the judicial system, and discrimination on the labour market. DO also arranged a full day training course with the group, where a number of key persons were trained as trainers to disseminate knowledge further into the group. A joint project group – based on the various groups – was also formed during the year, as well as a forum to inform and discuss discrimination. Together with DO, strategies for knowledge dissemination, training efforts and communication within the various organizations within the group were discussed.

The work surrounding discrimination with groups specially exposed to discrimination (hate crime) is based on the authority strategy of mutual knowledge development. This collaboration in turn will contribute to a change dynamic, both in relation to own power among those exposed and the deepened knowledge within the authority about the situation of the target group. This has led, among other things, to greater trust in the authority, increased reporting propensity and more cases, leading to a strengthened legal practice.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Education about the Holocaust, genocide and anti-Semitism for youth politicians

Country: Sweden
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (SKMA) ; The International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem, Jerusalem
Level of implementation: National

Period: December 2007

Summary: Thirteen youth politicians participated in a training course (December 2007) about the Holocaust, genocide and anti-Semitism. The education covered: Lectures in Sweden on comparative studies of mass murder, anti-Semitism, Sweden's relationship with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. The programme at Yad Vashem included lectures and workshops about the ..... Holocaust, genocide in Rwanda and anti-Semitism.

Impact: According to the evaluations: less tolerance towards anti-Semitism and a greater awareness of anti-Semitic tendencies which for instance may appear in connection with political events in the Middle East, better knowledge leads to better opportunities to present arguments against "the dark forces in society".


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Student trips to places where the Holocaust took place

Country: Sweden
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (SKMA) and each school, church community
Level of implementation: Local ; National

Period: 2007-2008

Summary: In 2008, approximately 400 youths from eight schools and one church community, participated in study trips to Holocaust areas in Poland. The trips were preceded by lectures and seminars which included facts about the Holocaust and Jewish life in Poland before the Holocaust, and where an extensive discussion on the basic values of society and the individual's ..... personal responsibilities was taken up.

Impact: The students have increased their knowledge about the Holocaust and other forms of genocide. The ability to make own choices and take a stand against racism is strengthened through discussions on basic social values. In the long run, the new attitudes that young people have will influence the civilian society they find themselves in. As an example of ..... an effect, many student groups have collected facts, personal experiences and reflections in the form of exhibitions and presentations from other school students, parents and the general public.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Seminar series about "Extreme nationalism and the threat to democracy"

Country: Sweden
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (SKMA)
Level of implementation: Regional ; National

Period: 2007-2008

Summary: The SKMA at five different places throughout the country held seminars on extreme nationalism for teachers, people who were responsible for integration within the municipalities, the police, political administrators and other interested parties. The programme provided lectures and workshops about, among other things, the change in attitude which extremist ..... groups in Swedish society have undergone, Sverigedemokraterna [sd political party], how the schools should deal with extremist opinions, anti-Semitism and historical revisionism. A total of 600 people participated.

Impact: To increase knowledge and awareness of various parties and extremist nationalist movements, their background and present operations, and in order to make the participants see how you can work with different counter strategies.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Youth work and prevention of violence (in the pipeline)

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Manne e.V., Potsdam and the Federal Agency for Civic Education
Level of implementation: Local

Summary: In a series of workshops led by a number of different experts, it is to be determined what rejection young men encounter during their upbringing within modern democracies and what measures can be initiated to avoid and reverse any such rejection.

Implemented in Brandenburg and Berlin.

Impact: Skills-upgrading measures for staff working in education, teaching them how to adopt a gender-oriented approach to young men susceptible to prejudice, construction and reconstruction of ideas of masculinity in modern society.

More information: mailto:infoatmannepotsdam.de

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

"Schule ohne Rassismus" (School without Racism)

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Association AKTIONCOURAGE e.V. Germany
Level of implementation: National

Summary: Nationwide network of schools that sign a written statement to initiate measures against racism and to promote civic commitment against all forms of racism.

Impact: The network encompasses more than 520 schools.

More information: mailto:schuleataktioncourage.de

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Special programme XENOS "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start")

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Level of implementation: National

Summary: In the framework of the XENOS special programme "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start"), support has been granted to local employment projects, initiatives and networks since April 2009. In counseling and accompanying young people who are willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene, a particular focus should be put on labor-market related ..... aspects. Initiatives implementing projects in the framework of this programme should develop new ideas to ensure that young people who drop out of the right-wing scene will be placed into vocational training, qualification schemes and/or employment.

The programme is also aimed at supporting projects which develop strategies for the relocation of youths and young adults willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene, offering them a new start in a new geographical, cultural and vocational setting so that they can completely break off any contact with the right-wing scene. In this context, the programme also helps to support projects which promote the exchange of experience between drop-out initiatives that might help to transfer transnational experience with different drop-out strategies to the German project landscape.

Thus, the primary objectives of the programme can be summarized as follows:

- Promoting youths and young adults willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene by providing them with guidance on the labour market and support in taking up vocational training and/or employment.

- Promoting the exit from the right-wing extremist scene by developing and implementing policies and strategies for a vocational relocation to another region.

- Exchange of experience and networking of initiatives with a particular focus on transnational aspects and quality assurance.


Impact: The special programme XENOS "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start") aims at persuading youths and young adults to quit the right-wing extremist scene by offering them an entry into the labour market.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Nationwide initiative "Orte der Vielfalt" (Places of diversity) - initiative aimed at strengthening commitment to tolerance

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Government (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth)
Level of implementation: Local

Summary: The Federal Government launched the initiative "Orte der Vielfalt" (Places of diversity) in order to strengthen democratic forces in municipalities and to make a public statement in support of diversity, tolerance and democracy against right-wing extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Municipalities that actively oppose right-wing extremism and support ..... diverse, tolerant coexistence can apply for the award "Ort der Vielfalt" (Place of diversity). They are given a signpost in acknowledgement of their efforts that officially designates them as a "Place of diversity". They are also featured on the interactive map of Germany on the website.

Impact: Making a public statement for diversity, tolerance and democracy.

Website: http:/​/​www.orte​-der​-vielfalt.de (English)

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Federal Programme "VIELFALT TUT GUT - Jugend für Vielfalt, Toleranz und Demokratie" (EMBRACING DIVERSITY - Young people embracing diversity, tolerance and democracy)

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Government (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth)
Level of implementation: Local ; Regional ; National

Summary: With the programme "VIELFALT TUT GUT. Jugend für Vielfalt, Toleranz und Demokratie" (EMBRACING DIVERSITY. Young people embracing diversity, tolerance and democracy) the Federal Government wishes to raise awareness for shared common values and cultural diversity, promote respect for human dignity and combat all forms of extremism, in particular right-wing ..... extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. The long-term programme was launched on 1 January 2007. The initial programme phase will run until 2010. The aim is to consolidate diversity, tolerance and democracy as central values of society as a whole and in particular to make children and young people aware of the basic rules of peaceful and democratic coexistence.

The programme is part of the preventative-educational strategy. It serves to raise awareness and is designed to have a long-term effect. Each year, the Federal Government appropriates EUR 19 million in support of the programme. It funds local action plans which local authorities are responsible for in a bid to strengthen the development of democracy locally as well as model projects that develop innovative and transferable strategies aimed at combating rightwing extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. There are currently 90 local action plans underway – 60 in eastern Germany and 39 in western Germany – as well as over 90 model projects.


Impact: Promoting 90 local action plans and over 90 model projects.

Website: http:/​/​www.vielfalt​-tut​-gut.de (English)

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

A guide for the improvement of support to victims of homophobic crime

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support

Initiator: National Police Board
Level of implementation: National

Period: 2004

Summary: This guide focuses on victims of homophobic crimes (so-called hate crimes) and is intended to help the police develop their support to such victims (see also IACP, 1999). The suggestions and advice presented in this guide are not intended to replace traditional crime-fighting practices - such as the application of the guidelines in the ‘Homicide Bible’ ..... or abiding by the routines for special events, the provisions of the Secrecy Act or the regulations pertaining to interviews with children – but should be seen as supplementary guidance meant to assist police officers in their everyday work.

The guide is primarily intended for police officers but it may also be of use to other officials in the criminal justice system, such as judges or prosecutors. It is particularly important that anyone working with these issues is aware of the questions that must be asked with a view to determining whether or not an incident is of a homophobic nature. As social services and medical staff often encounter these problems, they may also find the guide useful, as may also people working at crime victim support centres and women’s shelters.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Romska Tjejer i Fokus (Roma girls in focus)

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Training for criminal justice system ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Other

Initiator: Stockholms Romska Kvinnors Rådgivningscenter (Stockholm Roma Women’s advice centre) and Sociala Kamrat Forum (Social Friend Forum), Allmänna Arvsfonden (State Inheritance Fund), Ungdomsstyrelsen (Swedish National Board for Youth Affairs), Länsstyrelsen Stockholm (The County Administrative Board, Stockholm), Socialstyrelsen (National Board of Health and Welfare)
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: 1 January - 31 December 2008

Summary: We have had young Roma girls in focus in our work. The work has primarily been directed at hate crimes and discrimination and its prevention. Large parts have included the dissemination of information, lectures and network formation. Furthermore, a conscious goal has been to provide a sense of security for them along with confidence in the judicial ..... system. In addition to this, work has been carried out to prevent trafficking, marriage between children and honour-related violence. This shall relate to a Roma girls’ emergency service where the work shall continue to produce more information, lectures and a better understanding of the situation.

Impact: Security, more knowledge, awareness with both the authorities and the Roma girls about the problem and what actions are needed. The opening of an emergency service for Roma girls.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Preventive work with Roma

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Strengthening data collection ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Training for criminal justice system ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Other

Initiator: Centralförbundet (Central Federation) Roma International, Brottofferjouren with Roma and Sinti people and UNGA RIMON (Young people of Roma and Immigrants against narcotics), DO, Brottoffermyndigheten, Socialstyrelsen
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: 2008

Summary: Romska Riksförbund (The National Federation of Roma people) and associations took the initiative to start the project which shall also continue throughout 2009

The work has been specifically directed to the Roma group and to improve its knowledge on how to report a crime, preventive work, knowledge of witness protection and increased confidence ..... in the judicial system, some education in the judicial system etc. Limitations have nevertheless influenced the work as our financial support has not been sufficient. As regards the authorities, we have informed them of these situation with the Roma people and the hinders which have made it more difficult for them to file a report and also that there is a greater need of investments within education, information, brochures etc. in order to make the Roma people more aware and safe. Regarding the general public, we have presented information and organised lectures.

Impact: Increased knowledge, safety, daring to report a crime, to be able to distinguish between discrimination, hate crime, to dare to turn to the authorities, to improve on the authorities' understanding of the situation for the Roma people within the area.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report
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