Hate crime
        
Practices and initiatives undertaken to combat hate crimes - submitted for the ODIHR's annual Hate Crime Report
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Special programme XENOS "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start")

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Level of implementation: National

Summary: In the framework of the XENOS special programme "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start"), support has been granted to local employment projects, initiatives and networks since April 2009. In counseling and accompanying young people who are willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene, a particular focus should be put on labor-market related ..... aspects. Initiatives implementing projects in the framework of this programme should develop new ideas to ensure that young people who drop out of the right-wing scene will be placed into vocational training, qualification schemes and/or employment.

The programme is also aimed at supporting projects which develop strategies for the relocation of youths and young adults willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene, offering them a new start in a new geographical, cultural and vocational setting so that they can completely break off any contact with the right-wing scene. In this context, the programme also helps to support projects which promote the exchange of experience between drop-out initiatives that might help to transfer transnational experience with different drop-out strategies to the German project landscape.

Thus, the primary objectives of the programme can be summarized as follows:

- Promoting youths and young adults willing to quit the right-wing extremist scene by providing them with guidance on the labour market and support in taking up vocational training and/or employment.

- Promoting the exit from the right-wing extremist scene by developing and implementing policies and strategies for a vocational relocation to another region.

- Exchange of experience and networking of initiatives with a particular focus on transnational aspects and quality assurance.


Impact: The special programme XENOS "Ausstieg zum Einstieg" ("Quitting for a New Start") aims at persuading youths and young adults to quit the right-wing extremist scene by offering them an entry into the labour market.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Nationwide initiative "Orte der Vielfalt" (Places of diversity) - initiative aimed at strengthening commitment to tolerance

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Government (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth)
Level of implementation: Local

Summary: The Federal Government launched the initiative "Orte der Vielfalt" (Places of diversity) in order to strengthen democratic forces in municipalities and to make a public statement in support of diversity, tolerance and democracy against right-wing extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Municipalities that actively oppose right-wing extremism and support ..... diverse, tolerant coexistence can apply for the award "Ort der Vielfalt" (Place of diversity). They are given a signpost in acknowledgement of their efforts that officially designates them as a "Place of diversity". They are also featured on the interactive map of Germany on the website.

Impact: Making a public statement for diversity, tolerance and democracy.

Website: http:/​/​www.orte​-der​-vielfalt.de (English)

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Federal Programme "VIELFALT TUT GUT - Jugend für Vielfalt, Toleranz und Demokratie" (EMBRACING DIVERSITY - Young people embracing diversity, tolerance and democracy)

Country: Germany
Category: Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Federal Government (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth)
Level of implementation: Local ; Regional ; National

Summary: With the programme "VIELFALT TUT GUT. Jugend für Vielfalt, Toleranz und Demokratie" (EMBRACING DIVERSITY. Young people embracing diversity, tolerance and democracy) the Federal Government wishes to raise awareness for shared common values and cultural diversity, promote respect for human dignity and combat all forms of extremism, in particular right-wing ..... extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. The long-term programme was launched on 1 January 2007. The initial programme phase will run until 2010. The aim is to consolidate diversity, tolerance and democracy as central values of society as a whole and in particular to make children and young people aware of the basic rules of peaceful and democratic coexistence.

The programme is part of the preventative-educational strategy. It serves to raise awareness and is designed to have a long-term effect. Each year, the Federal Government appropriates EUR 19 million in support of the programme. It funds local action plans which local authorities are responsible for in a bid to strengthen the development of democracy locally as well as model projects that develop innovative and transferable strategies aimed at combating rightwing extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. There are currently 90 local action plans underway – 60 in eastern Germany and 39 in western Germany – as well as over 90 model projects.


Impact: Promoting 90 local action plans and over 90 model projects.

Website: http:/​/​www.vielfalt​-tut​-gut.de (English)

Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

A guide for the improvement of support to victims of homophobic crime

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support

Initiator: National Police Board
Level of implementation: National

Period: 2004

Summary: This guide focuses on victims of homophobic crimes (so-called hate crimes) and is intended to help the police develop their support to such victims (see also IACP, 1999). The suggestions and advice presented in this guide are not intended to replace traditional crime-fighting practices - such as the application of the guidelines in the ‘Homicide Bible’ ..... or abiding by the routines for special events, the provisions of the Secrecy Act or the regulations pertaining to interviews with children – but should be seen as supplementary guidance meant to assist police officers in their everyday work.

The guide is primarily intended for police officers but it may also be of use to other officials in the criminal justice system, such as judges or prosecutors. It is particularly important that anyone working with these issues is aware of the questions that must be asked with a view to determining whether or not an incident is of a homophobic nature. As social services and medical staff often encounter these problems, they may also find the guide useful, as may also people working at crime victim support centres and women’s shelters.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Romska Tjejer i Fokus (Roma girls in focus)

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Training for criminal justice system ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Other

Initiator: Stockholms Romska Kvinnors Rådgivningscenter (Stockholm Roma Women’s advice centre) and Sociala Kamrat Forum (Social Friend Forum), Allmänna Arvsfonden (State Inheritance Fund), Ungdomsstyrelsen (Swedish National Board for Youth Affairs), Länsstyrelsen Stockholm (The County Administrative Board, Stockholm), Socialstyrelsen (National Board of Health and Welfare)
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: 1 January - 31 December 2008

Summary: We have had young Roma girls in focus in our work. The work has primarily been directed at hate crimes and discrimination and its prevention. Large parts have included the dissemination of information, lectures and network formation. Furthermore, a conscious goal has been to provide a sense of security for them along with confidence in the judicial ..... system. In addition to this, work has been carried out to prevent trafficking, marriage between children and honour-related violence. This shall relate to a Roma girls’ emergency service where the work shall continue to produce more information, lectures and a better understanding of the situation.

Impact: Security, more knowledge, awareness with both the authorities and the Roma girls about the problem and what actions are needed. The opening of an emergency service for Roma girls.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Preventive work with Roma

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Strengthening data collection ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Training for criminal justice system ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Other

Initiator: Centralförbundet (Central Federation) Roma International, Brottofferjouren with Roma and Sinti people and UNGA RIMON (Young people of Roma and Immigrants against narcotics), DO, Brottoffermyndigheten, Socialstyrelsen
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: 2008

Summary: Romska Riksförbund (The National Federation of Roma people) and associations took the initiative to start the project which shall also continue throughout 2009

The work has been specifically directed to the Roma group and to improve its knowledge on how to report a crime, preventive work, knowledge of witness protection and increased confidence ..... in the judicial system, some education in the judicial system etc. Limitations have nevertheless influenced the work as our financial support has not been sufficient. As regards the authorities, we have informed them of these situation with the Roma people and the hinders which have made it more difficult for them to file a report and also that there is a greater need of investments within education, information, brochures etc. in order to make the Roma people more aware and safe. Regarding the general public, we have presented information and organised lectures.

Impact: Increased knowledge, safety, daring to report a crime, to be able to distinguish between discrimination, hate crime, to dare to turn to the authorities, to improve on the authorities' understanding of the situation for the Roma people within the area.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

RFSL Brottsofferjour

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Strengthening data collection ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Training for criminal justice system ; Victim support ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Addressing incitement of hatred on the internet ; Other

Initiator: Socialstyrelsen (National Board of Health and Welfare)/Brottsoffermyndigheten (Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority)/Rotary
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: Ongoing since 1998

Summary: RFSL Brottsofferjour [Victims’ emergency service] celebrated its 10th year in 2008. We continue to work with all aspects of violence that affects the LGBT group. A large part is hate crime and since 2007 co-operation with the Stockholm police’s hate-crime emergency service is well-established. The emergency service is national and can be reached ..... by email or telephone. The service plays a major role in all the work regarding hate crime in Sweden and sometimes also internationally. This structural work is managed on all fronts; politically, educationally, within research, the media and so on.

In 2008, a three-day international event was carried out during Europride. A total of 7 countries met in workshops, seminars etc.

In November 2008, a prize was given to Rotary which will make the first protected accommodation in Scandinavia for the LGBT group possible.


Impact: Increased level of knowledge on all fronts, improved help for victims, more people get in touch, and more convictions as a result of this.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

"Victim of hate crimes - what has been done and what can be improved?"

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives

Initiator: Brottsoffermyndigheten (The Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority)
Level of implementation: National

Period: January 2006 - April 2007

Summary: Brottsofferfonden (the Crime Victim Fund) has for several years been given an assignment by the government on the appropriation of funding to provide special prioritisation to projects which concern the victims of hate crimes. Despite a number of campaigns to provide information, the number of applications remained few. In order to gather a more clear ..... picture of the efforts that are required to improve the knowledge and the support to victims of hate crimes, Rådet för Brottsofferfonden (the council for the crime victim fund) in response to the Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority's request undertook a review of what sort of knowledge was available, the research that was being done and the existing support organisations. The review was based on a number of contacts with professionals and organisations who worked with and in some other way had knowledge of hate crimes. These professionals/organisations consisted of researchers, prosecutors and the police who had a responsibility for hate crimes and representatives of non-profit-making organisations who either worked directly with victims of hate crimes, or in some other way worked with these issues. The review showed that there was a considerable interest for hate crime issues in many areas, but that there were not that many concrete examples of support organisations for those who had been subjected to such crimes. The project culminated in a report which made proposals for action for victims of hate crimes.

The conclusions and proposals put forward were:
  • Professionals/organisations that come into contact with victims of hate crimes need a better understanding of the problem, in particular with regard to how to deal with these victims.
  • Networks are required to be created between professionals/organisations in order to improve the understanding of victims of hate crimes.
  • Research is required on how to deal with victims of hate crimes within the judicial system, the health system, the social services, the schools and among support organisations.
  • New research results within the area must be disseminated so that people involved can be informed.
  • Informational literature directed at the groups who run the risk of being subjected to hate crimes needs to be produced.
  • Court interpreters should be educated in hate crime issues.
Publication: Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority’s report "Offer för hatbrott – vad har gjorts och vad kan förbättras?" ("Victims of hate crime – what has been done and what can be improved?")


Impact: It is hoped that the project would inspire new projects and powerful contributions for victims of hate crimes.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Training on hate crimes and heteronormativity

Country: Sweden
Category: Training for criminal justice system ; Strengthening data collection ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence

Initiator: HomO and Forum Living History
Level of implementation: Local

Period: 2006

Impact: Hate crimes that have homophobic motives are often difficult to investigate and on many occasions are difficult to prove. The office of the prosecutor general has stated that an important condition for the prosecution of these crimes is that a report is submitted directly in connection with the incident and that the police are immediately able to come ..... to the scene of the crime and start the investigation. Against this background, in 2006 HomO and Forum for Living History carried out a number of training courses which had the theme "concrete police work on hate crimes and heteronormativity". The target group included receptionists, the people who first receive the report that a crime had been committed, the people who scrutinised the report and the group managers, personnel categories which had not previously received sufficient competence development on hate crimes and heteronormativity.

HomO’s ambition with this training course has been to clarify why hate crimes must be handled with priority based on so-called case-teaching as should the significance that the reason behind a suspected hate crime should be explained during the preliminary investigation. Special emphasis has been placed on the motivational aspects and the significance of providing such details which can be used as a basis for an application of the aggravation of sentence rule in chapter 29 2 § 7 p. of the penal code. In addition, attitude and treatment issues have been dealt with, particularly as to the police approach to hate crimes in connection with protected groups.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Brottsoffermyndigheten (The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority)

Country: Sweden
Category: Victim support ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Other

Initiator: Brottsofferfonden (The Crime Victim Fund)
Level of implementation: Local ; National ; Regional

Period: 1994-

Summary: Every year the Brottsofferfonden distributes funds to various projects whose purpose is to improve the situation for victims of crimes through an increase in knowledge and understanding. The projects may vary in size and direction, everything from the production of informational literature to several-year research projects. Since the government introduced ..... the fund in 1994, funding has been distributed to many projects which in different ways have had the intention of improving the situation for victims of hate crimes. Among all of these, the following can be mentioned as examples:
  • In 2008 RFSL Nord was granted SEK 50 000 for two conferences on hate crimes directed at the LGBT group.
  • In 2008 RFSL was granted SEK 95 000 for a seminar under Europride which dealt with, among other things, hate crimes.
  • In 2007 the police authorities in Skåne were granted SEK 40 000 which was used to fund a training course for the police on the theme hate crimes.
  • In 2006 Brottsofferjourernas Regionförbund Gävleborg’s County was granted SEK 50 000 for a regional training course on victims of xenophobic crimes.
  • Doctor of philosophy Eva Tiby at the University of Stockholm was granted in 2003 SEK 402 000 to carry out the research project "Berättelser om hatbrott" (Stories of hate crimes).


Impact: Hopefully the projects which have been granted funding from the Crime Victim Fond have increased people's understanding of victims of hate crimes as well as increasing the understanding that the situation for victims has improved.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Guidelines and instructions to prosecutors

Country: Finland
Category: Training for criminal justice system


Summary: The Prosecution Service has put special value on the processing of hate-prejudiced crimes and bias incidents in 2008. The Prosecutor General has also given guidelines and instructions to prosecutors. Certain types of crimes and other crimes with certain characteristics of hate or racist motive are always considered socially notable and each case shall ..... thus be reported to the Office of the Prosecutor General.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Project group against hate crime

Country: Sweden
Category: Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence ; Strengthening data collection ; Training for criminal justice system ; Victim support ; Education/prevention/awareness-raising initiatives ; Combating racism in sports

Initiator: Östergötland County Police
Level of implementation: Local

Period: Spring 2007 – February 2008

Summary: The hate crime project was started in order to review the authority's routines relating to suspected hate crime. These routines were reviewed and improved. The project group included a number of police officers responsible for hate crime problems in their areas. A couple of specialist prosecutors from the public prosecution offices in Linköping and ..... Norrköping also participated in the group.

See: "Handlingsplan mot hatbrott" ("Action Plan against Hate Crime"), "Rapport – hatbrott" ("Report – Hate Crime"), and "Utbildningsmaterial om hatbrott" ("Teaching Material about Hate Crime")


Impact: Probably, the police officers will have become better at discovering suspicions of hate crime in their recording of reports, at the station and in the investigation rooms.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Training for Police officers, initiated by ODIHR-OSCE

Country: Poland
Category: Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors ; Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence

Initiator: Ministry of Interior and Administration in co-operation with the Police
Level of implementation: National ; Regional

Summary: Training for Police officers with respect to various aspects related to hate crime, e.g. conducting an investigation, exchange of information as well as co-operation between the Police and society and non-governmental organisations. A team chaired by the Human Rights Advisor of the Chief of the Police is set up in order to work out a model curriculum ..... of the training courses related to preventing and combating hate crimes and a set of teaching materials for the realisation of this curriculum at the local level.

Impact: Increased awareness of phenomena of hate crime within the Police


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Preventative and repressive measures in order to take effective action against hate crimes

Country: Germany
Category: Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors


Summary: In principle, the prosecution of criminal offences, including those with an extremist or xenophobic background, comes under the jurisdiction of the Federal Länder. If an offence is aimed at endangering external national security or the internal security of the Federal Republic of Germany or at abolishing, suspending the application of or undermining ..... constitutional principles, the Federal Public Prosecutor is responsible for investigating the offences mentioned in the catalogue of offences set forth in Section 120 subsection 2 sentence 1 no. 3 of the Judicature Act (Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz) (GVG), if the case is of special importance.

The Federal Länder have implemented a range of preventative and repressive measures in order to take effective action against hate crimes, for instance:

- Programmes for drop-outs
The judiciary plays a special role in so-called programmes for drop-outs aimed generally at right-wing extremist groups that are implemented in nearly all of the Federal Länder. What these programmes have in common is that they offer special assistance mainly for young sympathisers, hangers-on or disillusioned activists who wish to drop out of the right-wing scene.
- Advance training measures
The German Judicial Academy that is jointly managed and financed by the Federal Government and Federal Länder offers regular conferences that deal with racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia.
- Special departments
There are special departments at public prosecution offices for politically motivated crime/offences against national security. The existence of special departments corresponds to the specialist work at relevant police stations and intensified cooperation between both authorities. Some of the Federal Länder also have special guidelines on how to deal with crimes motivated by right-wing extremism.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Police instructions on promoting tolerance and prevent racism

Country: Finland
Category: Strengthening the response of law enforcement and prosecutors


Summary: In 1997, the Ministry of the Interior issued the police with instructions on promoting tolerance and preventing racism. The Ministry of the Interior’s Police Department issued instructions on how to classify offences involving racist features in the police report information system. According to the instructions, the police officer receiving a report ..... of a crime is required to make an appropriate entry in the police report form, if the report concerns a crime with racist characteristics.

In January 2004, the Ministry of the Interior’s Police Department revised its instructions on measures to be taken by the police to increase tolerance and combat racism. The main guidelines for police measures are:
- To follow closely organised and racist action-groups and intervene immediately in possible violations as appropriate
- To substantially lower the threshold for intervening in racist acts
- To develop training within police administration so that it is possible to intervene indetected incidents of discrimination more efficiently than before
- To aim to actively improve the qualifications of ethnic minorities to apply for positions within police administration
- To discuss ethnic issues in publications by the Supreme Police Command and police administration
- To improve the compilation of statistics and research related to the status of immigrants.

Furthermore, the instruction includes more detailed demands for carrying out measures. At the moment the instructions are being updated and reassessed. According to section 15 of the Criminal Investigations Act, the police is obliged to inform the prosecutor of any offences reported to and investigated by the police, if someone is suspected of the offences and the offences is not considered simple offence. Further instructions have been given in spring 2008 to the police and the prosecutor to ensure efficient and reliable processing e.g. police informs to prosecutor if the case is considered socially notable.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

One-year NGO Empowering Programme

Country: Finland
Category: Increasing reporting of hate crimes/community confidence

Initiator: National Anti-discrimination Campaign

Summary: Finland has previously taken measures to directly encourage victims of hate crimes for making reports to the police. The results show that the number of suspected racist reports to police has increased until 2007. In 2008 measures were taken to empower NGOs representing different groups exposed to discrimination (immigrant communities, the Roma, the ..... Sámi People, Muslim communities, LGBT-people, people with disability) to carry out anti-discrimination activities, to train their members for better identification of discrimination and to share information on equal opportunities and equal treatment. As a consequence of this one-year NGO Empowering Programme, various visibility campaigns and training seminars were organised, antidiscrimination materials and brochures for the victims of discrimination produced and disseminated. We hope that due to the Programme, potential victims of discrimination and hate crimes are one step more aware on their rights and report increasingly.

The Programme was implemented by the cross-sector National Anti-discrimination Campaign co-financed by the European Commission, Progress Programme.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Joint government commission to the National Police Board/Swedish Prosecution Authority

Country: Sweden
Category: Strengthening data collection

Initiator: The Government
Level of implementation: National

Period: 2007-2008

Summary: In the grant notice for 2007, the National Police Board and the Swedish Prosecution Authority were commissioned to jointly ensure that hate crime motives were identified and investigated as early as possible in investigations of crimes where such motives may exist.

To further improve the efforts against hate crime, a number of measures were ..... decided on during 2007:
- Training of staff at the Police Contact Centre (PKC), to which telephone calls to the national telephone number 114 14 are directed.
- Changes in the police reporting routine: The police reporting routine (RAR) has a new text field, in which all recorders of reports must answer yes or no to whether the current matter is a suspected hate crime.


Impact: See:
"Uppdrag till Rikspolisstyrelsen och Åklagarmyndigheten angående hatbrott" ("Commission to the National Police Board and Swedish Prosecution Authority regarding hate crime"),
..... rel="external">"Införande av textfält i RAR angående hatbrott" ("Introduction of text field in RAR relating to hate crime"), and
"Redovisning av uppdrag angående hatbrott" ("Reporting of commission relating to hate crime")


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Project to improve and expand the monitoring of and statistics on racist crime to cover all hate crimes

Country: Finland
Category: Strengthening data collection

Initiator: Police College of Finland

Summary: Although the Finnish racist crime monitoring system is rated as comprehensive by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, the system is in the progress of developing. So far, there is no information available in Finland on how many hate crimes, other than cases of racist crime, are reported to the police.

As a part of the national anti-discrimination ..... campaign, the Police College of Finland started in November 2008 a project to improve and expand the monitoring of and statistics on racist crime to cover all hate crimes. The first statistical publication on hate crimes was published in December 2009 with extensive media coverage. The research covers hate-crimes reported to the police concerning the following grounds of discrimination: ethnic origin, sexual orientation and expression of gender identity (LGBT persons), religion and disability. A similar research will be made in the future on annual basis.

The results of the research will be reported for the OSCE/ODIHR 2009 report.



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Comparative survey study on processing racist crimes in the Finnish juridical system

Country: Finland
Category: Strengthening data collection

Initiator: Police College of Finland

Summary: The study focused on 107 reports of an offence with racist characteristics filed in the Helsinki jurisdictional district in 2006. The purpose of the study was to explore how suspected crimes with racist characteristics progress in the judicial system from the pre-trial investigation through prosecution to court proceedings. Another purpose was to explore ..... how the officials take the racist characteristics of a deed and its possible racial motivation into account at various stages in the criminal justice process.

According to the results, 46 % of the crimes reported to the police were submitted to the prosecutor for the consideration of charges. The most common reasons for suspected crimes not progressing from the police to the prosecutor were that the suspects remained unknown, or that the victim had presented no demands in the case or that the victim had withdrawn the demand. More than two thirds of the suspects in the cases submitted for consideration of charges were charged with at least one crime. The most common reason for the prosecutor deciding to waive charges was the same as the statistically most common reason for decisions to waive charges – insufficient evidence.

The results indicate that suspected crimes with racist characteristics progress just like 'ordinary' crimes in the criminal justice process. Instead, problems in the progress of suspected crimes with racist characteristics have to do with the identification and investigation of racial motivation and taking it into account as grounds for increasing the punishment. This however is not a problem exclusive to Finland; it has also been observed in studies implemented in other countries.

The study was published November 2008 and is available in Finnish and English on: http://www.poliisiammattikorkeakoulu.fi/poliisi/poliisioppilaitos/home.nsf/files/Raportteja73_Peutere_eng_suojattu/$file/Raportteja73_Peutere_eng_suojattu.pdf



Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report

Updated Reporting Manual in the Uniform Crime Reporting Incident-Based Survey – Reporting Manual, p. 96

Country: Canada
Category: Strengthening data collection


Summary: A new rule has been added to the uniform crime reporting system when hate crime is recorded. The rule indicates that in case of violation of article 2176, 3550, 3560 a hate crime indicator variable should be either affirmative or suspected.


Submitted for the 2008 Hate Crime Report
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